Modern marine surveying in Korea began in the 1700s, mainly carried out by foreign ocean explorers. Surveying by domestic explorers began in the mid-1900s with the founding of the Depart- ment of Hydrography in the Operation Agency of Navy Headquarters (currently the Korea Hydro- graphic and Oceanographic Agency: KHOA). The
Ocean Development Institute, affiliated with the Korea Institute of Science and Technology (cur- rently the Korea Institute of Ocean Science and Technology: KIOST), was established in 1973 and introduced active ocean exploration and re- search. Today, extensive exploration and research continues to be carried out along the coastal re
gion of the Korean Peninsula, as well as in other regions such as the Arctic and Antarctic.
Marine surveying can be de ned as the collec- tion of oceanic data through various observation techniques to help develop an understanding of ocean characteristics and phenomena. It includes marine physical surveys, marine geological sur-
veys, marine biological surveys, marine chemical surveys, and remote sensing data. Marine surveys in Korea are usually carried out by national in- stitutes and laboratories such as KHOA, KIOST, and the National Institute of Fishery Science (NIFS). They are either carried out regularly or speci cally for particular purposes.