Industrial complexes play a key role in the na- tional economy. They accounted for 62% of na- tional manufacturing production, 79% of exports, and 42% of employment in 2010. An industrial complex is an area that is developed and managed under a comprehensive plan to host industries. Since the 1960s, Korea has promoted industrial complexes for firms to take advantage of infra- structure and agglomeration effects. They were once called "industrial parks," but the name was later changed to "industrial complexes" to re ect the shift to a knowledge-based economy in the 1990s.
Industrial complexes include national industrial complexes, local industrial complexes, and ag- ricultural-industrial complexes. Local industrial complexes are further split into urban high-tech industrial complexes and general rural industrial complexes. These different types of industrial complexes reflect different developers and di- verse purposes. National industrial complexes are designated by the Ministry of Land, Infrastruc- ture and Transport. Local industrial complexes are designated by local governments. National industrial complexes frequently target developing specialized industrial elds, stimulating underde- veloped regions, or developing areas under mul- tiple government jurisdictions. Local industrial complexes frequently aim at promoting regional dispersion of industries and boosting local econ- omy. Agricultural-industrial complexes focus on hosting the industries that may help local farmers or shermen increase their incomes.
There were 1,033 industrial complexes at the end of 2013. Among these, there are 41 national industrial complexes, 528 general industrial com- plexes, 11 urban high-tech industrial complexes, and 453 agricultural-industrial complexes. The total area of industrial complexes is 484.7 km2, and their occupancy rate is 93.9% with 80,547 tenant companies. National industrial complexes are located mostly in the vicinity of the Seoul Metropolitan Area and along the southeastern coastal region. Many of the general rural indus- trial complexes are located along the Gyeongbu Expressway, which connects Seoul and Busan.