English I

Industrial Structure and Space


 The change in industrial structure is usually assessed by reviewing changes in the share of agriculture, forestry, fishery, mining, manufacturing, service, and other industries. Many indicators can be used. However, the number of employees in each industry proves to be an excellent indicator. Since the 1960s, the agriculture, forestry, fishery, and mining industries in Korea have suffered a steady decrease in employment while manufacturing, service, and other industries increased. Similar patterns of decrease in agriculture along with a concordant increase in manufacturing have also occurred in other countries, but what is unique about Korea’s changing employment pattern is that it happened very rapidly. Even advanced countries went through such changes, but saw their transformation unfold over hundreds of years. Korea, on the other hand, underwent this dramatic shift in about 30 years. As such, Korea’s industrialization can truly be characterized as rapid and compressed economic growth.

   To examine the industrial structure of each city and province between 1985 and 2012, one must review the changes in total value. In all regions, the total value added grew for 27 years. Rapid growth was seen especially in Gyeonggi-Do. In all regions, the agriculture, forestry, and fishery, share decreased, and metropolitan areas showed a decrease in manufacturing and an increase in service and other industries. Seoul saw a 95.5% in service and other industries, and Jeju saw an 81.3% in service and other industries of the total gross value added in the region, which demonstrates that the industrial structure is becoming service-oriented in these two regions.   Because the rapid economic growth of Korea was led by the manufacturing industry Korea’s industrial growth overall has become synonymous with the manufacturing industry. In recent years, however, the focus of Korea’s economy has shifted away from manufacturing towards high-technology-intensive industries.